Slow Food dalla Cina: «Cambiamo il sistema alimentare, fermiamo il cambiamento climatico»

Dal Congresso internazionale a Chengdu, in Cina, Slow Food lancia Menu for Change, la campagna per fermare il cambiamento climatico

«Siamo tutti coinvolti: il cambiamento climatico è una crisi presente che richiede uno sforzo immediato e corale dell’umanità. Ogni nostra scelta farà la differenza, perché il motore del cambiamento è la somma delle nostre azioni individuali». Dalla Cina, di fronte ai 400 delegati in rappresentanza della rete di Slow Food e Terra Madre da 90 Paesi, Carlo Petrini ribadisce che il riscaldamento globale è una realtà, non riguarda un futuro indefinito, e i suoi effetti si avvertono già nel presente. Di qui l’esigenza di rafforzare il messaggio del movimento: «Per Slow Food è un dovere occuparsi di cambiamento climatico: non esiste qualità del cibo, non esiste bontà senza rispetto dell’ambiente, delle risorse e del lavoro. Non va dimenticato che la produzione di cibo e la sua distribuzione incide per un quinto sul riscaldamento del pianeta».

In tutto il mondo, Slow Food lancia oggi Menu for Change la prima campagna di comunicazione e raccolta fondi internazionale che mette in relazione cibo e cambiamento climatico. Le emissioni agricole di produzione vegetale e animale sono tra le principali fonti di emissioni di gas-serra, tra cui anidride carbonica (CO2), metano (CH4) e protossido di azoto (N2O): il sistema di produzione alimentare industriale è tra le prime cause del riscaldamento del pianeta, mentre le prime vittime di questa catastrofe annunciata ci sono l’agricoltura familiare, le economie pastorali e la pesca artigianale.

Non abbiamo più tempo, Harvey, Irma, la siccità, il fenomeno migratorio, le bombe d’acqua che ci sorprendono nel sonno, le vendemmie anticipate, il crollo delle produzioni, la mancanza di erba fresca o il rientro anticipato dagli alpeggi, l’acidificazione e l’innalzamento dei mari, la presenza di animali prima inesistenti a determinate latitudini, la desertificazione e il progressivo impoverimento dei suoli sono il volto del cambiamento climatico. Non sono eventi record da registrare negli annali, sono la normalità che ci aspetta. E le cause sono da rintracciare nell’attività antropica e soprattutto nelle emissioni di gas fossili.

Il settore agricolo è responsabile del 21% (Fao 2015) delle emissioni totali, a fronte del 37% di quello energetico, 14% dei trasporti e l’11% dell’industria. Nel settore agroalimentare, la fonte principale di emissioni di gas-serra arriva dall’allevamento zootecnico che, da solo, produce il 40% delle emissioni dell’intero settore. A questa fonte segue quella della distribuzione di fertilizzanti sintetici: 13% delle emissioni agricole (725 Mt CO2 eq.).

E il conto da pagare è salatissimo, soprattutto in alcune zone del mondo. «Nonostante siano tra i minori produttori di gas serra, l’Africa e i paesi più deboli sono i primi a scontare le conseguenze del riscaldamento globale. E i primi a pagarne le conseguenze sono contadini, pastori e comunità indigene costretti di conseguenza a migrare. Con la promozione dell’agroecologia, la tutela della biodiversità, stando a fianco dei produttori sul campo Slow Food, in Africa e in tutto il mondo contribuisce a sviluppare pratiche di mitigazione e adattamento. Molto deve essere fatto e Slow Food non può vincere da solo» interviene John Kariuki, vicepresidente della Fondazione Slow Food per la Biodiversità.

Risponde Tiejun Wen, Cina. Decano esecutivo, Istituto di studi avanzati per la sostenibilità, Renmin University, e Istituto per la ricostruzione rurale, Southwest University.

«Per affrontare i cambiamenti in atto è necessario lavorare sull’integrazione fra il contesto urbano e quello rurale. In Cina, il sistema fondato sullo sviluppo delle aree urbane, spesso non è in grado di rispondere alle istanze delle aree rurali che vanno valorizzate nelle proprie specificità. Tre concetti vanno posti al centro di questo sviluppo: la solidarietà per i diritti dei contadini, la sicurezza agricola ecologica, la sostenibilità ambientale rurale. E per far ciò bisogna passare da un modello politico fondato sul capitale a un modello fondato sulle persone».

E dalla nostra rete, arriva l’intervento di Mbaye Diongue, Senegal, immigrato senegalese in Italia: «In Senegal, le conseguenze devastanti del cambiamento climatico hanno già iniziato un percorso insidioso e inarrestabile nelle zone costiere come Bargny o St Louis, dove interi quartieri sono stati inghiottiti dal mare che avanza. La grande domanda che riguarda noi africani, e in generale i paesi poveri o in via di sviluppo, è se abbiamo meritato tutto questo, dove stia la nostra colpa. In Africa, abbiamo contribuito poco o niente al cambiamento climatico. Perché dobbiamo subirlo senza avere gli strumenti, i mezzi, la capacità reale di far fronte ai cambiamenti in corso?».

Anche in Italia, il comparto agricolo è un emettitore netto di gas-serra e contribuisce per circa il 7% alle emissioni totali nazionali. E anche in Italia gli effetti del cambiamento climatico minano le nostre produzioni più preziose: «L’Europa ha passato l’estate con una drammatica siccità interrotta da improvvise alluvioni che hanno causato disastri idrogeologici, colpendo soprattutto le zone rurali più indifese. E il paradosso è che è proprio l’agricoltura industriale a contribuire alle incessanti emissioni che scaldano il pianeta. Ma esistono modelli agricoli differenti? Bisogna agire. I governi con gli obiettivi globali di contenimento delle emissioni, ciascuno di noi con le proprie scelte quotidiane» auspica Francesco Sottile, Italia. docente di Coltivazioni arboree e Arboricoltura speciale presso l’Università di Palermo.

«Ridurre le emissioni non può più essere una possibilità da rimandare, è un obbligo. E ognuno deve intervenire: eliminiamo del tutto gli sprechi, soprattutto alimentari. Ogni europeo spreca 179 kg di cibo ogni anno, pensate che il cibo buttato via consuma la quantità d’acqua pari al flusso del fiume Volga e utilizza inutilmente 1,4 miliardi di ettari di terreno – quasi il 30% della superficie agricola mondiale. Traotto in emeissioni? Lo spreco alimentare è responsabile della produzione di 3,3 miliardi di tonnellate di gas serra (FAO, 2015). Cerchiamo di prediligere prodotti di prossimità, di mangiare poca carne ed evitare quella che arriva da allevamenti intensivi. E poi poniamoci poche e semplici domande: come è stato prodotto il cibo che condivido con la mia famiglia? Da dove arriva? Di quanta energia e di quanta acqua ha avuto bisogno? Slow Food lavora per divulgare questa conoscenza e per valorizzare e sostenere quelle produzioni che scelgono pratiche agricole e produttive resilienti ed ecologiche, le uniche che possono contribuire alla mitigazione e all’adattamento al cambiamento climatico. Aiutateci a portare avanti i nostri progetti, anche una piccola donazione fa la differenza» conclude Carlo Petrini.

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